Administrative organization of Satavahanas Notes for TSPSC Group 1 2024.Full details below.
Administrative Organization Of Satavahanas
- KING was the head of the state.
- He was the supreme authority and supreme commander in chief of the army.
- Hereditary monarchy was in vogue .
- Royal power held only by males.
- King assumed titles such as RAJA, MAHARAJA.
- King performed Asvamedha and Rajasuya sacrifices.
- Kings ruled according to Dharmasastras .
- King has to be Dharmasastra bound and Dharma protector .
ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF OF EMPEROR
To help kings in administration, there used to be Amatyas, mahamatras, visvasamatyas.
There used to be employees such as
- MAHARATHIS ( Officials who governed provinces).
- MAHABHOJAKA ( status of provisional governor)
- MAHASENAPATHI ( commander of army).
- BHANDARIKA ( one who safeguard income in kind)
- HERANIKA or HIRANYAKA.( Treasurer)
- DUTAKA ( spies)
- LEKHAKA ( security of the emperor)
- NIBANDHAKARA ( employee who registered documents)
- MAHATARAKA ( kings bodyguard)
- MAHAMATRAS ( who look after responsibility of buddhist monks)
- GRAMAKA ( village official).
Satavahana kingdom divided into 3 divisions. Rajakamkheta, feudatories, border areas .
The areas which were directly under the rule of the king are called Rajakamkheta.
Chutus in Mysore, kurus in kolhapur, Ikshvakus in vijayapuri remained as feudatories.
Border areas were kept under the control of army commanders who gradually emerged as landlords.
Satavahana kingdom was divided into some provinces called AHARAS
Their governor is known as Amatya or Ahara.
Cities used to be called as NIGAMA SABHA ( mentioned in Bhattiprolu inscription)
Caste elders were called as GANAPATHI, who are members of niyamasabha.
VILLAGE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM
- Village was next administrative unit after Ahara.
- Village head is known as GRAMIKA or GUMIKA , which is a hereditary post who are generally an army officers. His main duties are collection of taxes and maintaining law and order.
- In later times, village heads got an opportunity to strengthen politically and gradually led to feudalism.
- People in village were made to do VETTI.
LAND TAX, REVENUE SYSTEM.
land tax was the principal source of income.
Two kinds of taxes RAJA BHOGA and DEVANEYA were collected.
1/6th of crop yield is collected as land tax.
Duties on highways,taxes on mines , ports,and passages were levied.
Professional tax is known as KARUKARA.
Government had monopoly over salt manufacturing.
Taxes were remitted in the form of cash .
Brahmins and Ascetics are exempted from all taxes.
It is from the time of satavahanas that land grants to Brahmins and buddhist monks were started.
Gautamiputra SATAKARNI was the first king to make such grants.
Government official has NO SUPERVISION over the lands that were granted to them.
Satavahana had a big army.
King was commander in chief of the army. During battle, the king used to lead the army forces.
MAHASENAPATHI (commander of army) looks after many army matters.
Continuous wars were fought with sakas.
Their army was four fold, consisting of Chariots, Elephants, Cavalry,Fort soldiers. Of them status of heads of elephants and horse regiment (Cavalry) who used to wear head dresses is higher compared to others
Army camps were called as SKANDAVARAM( temporary army camp) ,KATAKAM ( army stations in town)
Gulmika, village head who is also a army official had nine chariots,nine elephants, twenty five horses, forty five foot soldiers under him.
Forts were built around towns whose remains were found in kotilingala, dhulikatta.
Soldiers used to have weapons like swords,staff,small size pears, shield, protective armour.
- justice is dharma
- King has to rule According to Dharmasastra.
- No special courts were there.
- Village officials used to settle disputes in villages.
- For small offences ,fines were imposed.
- For other offences, cutting off body parts, sending out of the country, death sentences Were imposed.
- Judicial system is favourable for higher classes while torturous to innocents.
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